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How To Study In India | Application Guidelines and Requirements
Koi mil gaya! Want to study in India? That’s why I sang you that song ‘cos I’ve found you’ it’s an Indian movie sound tract. India is one of the fun countries when it comes to education not just because of their funny way of speaking but their in-depth view of life and education.

In the past decades, India has been discovered to be the 12th most populous country for American students and students traveling far and wide to study why? The country is known to provide some of the best medical practitioners and the likes.

Don’t waste your time searching for universities to study or finding fault in studying in this country because you cannot find another country like this. With interesting cultures and festivals to spark up your celebrative spirit like Holi-the festival of colors (not that I’ve attended) with lots of landmarks and tourist centers to visit like the Taj mahal, built in 1632 and is one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

How to Study in Indian Universities
Figured you should first of all learn of the different degrees and duration offered in Indian universities.

It takes between three and four years to complete an undergraduate degree in India.

Subjects such as arts, commerce and science take three years and topics such as technology, engineering and pharmacy taking four years.

As is the general case at universities across the world, subjects such as law, veterinary science and medicine are likely to take longer.

India follows the Bachelor’s degree structure for undergraduate studies. After completion of their Bachelor’s degree students can decide whether to continue their education with a master.

Requirements:
A credit pass in 5 relevance course(s).

Admission Processing
The admission processing is simple. Interested students are to scan the following documents to the website of the institution of their choice along with the following requirements.


 

 

WAEC Certificate / statement of result
Data page of international passport (if it is available, if not no problem. Admission will be processed)
3. Indicate your propose course of study. Also provide your phone no for easy of communication.
Note: Admission processing take 2-3 days. Offer letter will be sent to student. No payment of any fee for admission processing.

Visa Requirements
Valid International Passport six-month validity
Admission Letter
Authentication of your original results from Federal Ministry of Education & Foreign Affairs Ministry, Abuja.
NDLA Clearance from the student’s state office. (This usually takes a month)
Letter of sponsorship supported with Court Affidavit.
6 (six) month bank statement supported with Court Affidavit.
2 by 2 passport photographs.
Payment of necessary acceptance fee to the Institution in India.
Must have five (5) credits in relevant subjects not less than C4 in WAEC or NECO
Support his/her documents with his sponsor’s ID card or other means of identification
Payments of visa fee of at the embassy
Book appointment and obtain date online.
Living in India and Security
Summary of Admission Process
Credit in five subjects at WAEC level
Scanned result
Admission Offer Letter ready in 3 days
Apply for NDLA clearance from your state office of NDLA
Get your result authenticated from Federal Ministry of Education and Foreign Affair Ministry, Abuja
Get your International Passport
Book date for visa interview
Get ready all your Visa supporting documents
Go for visa interview on the appointed day
If visa is given, book for your ticket
Communicate your departure date to the University
Depart to India and University will pick you at airport
Important Notes:
You can visit the university’s website @ www.indianedu.com for more enquiries
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Gone are the days when this country suffered from apartheid rotting in pain only living in hope that help would surface. Today, SA is a free town, a free country and guess what?

Visitors are very welcome as well as tourists who travel all the way from New York in a 15hrs 20mins non-stop flight to Johannesburg for vacation.

Streaming the streets of Cape Town, Johannesburg Stellenbosch etc., getting the awesome feel of Africa and bathing in the African sun in the land known as THE RAINBOW NATION, a land that covets the beauty of Africa to itself in an imaginary fiction. Not only is it known for tourism and standardized economy but also for its advanced mode of education.

Upholding a formidable standard of education, SA is known to offer the best of education from the primary to tertiary level. You don’t need to be a citizen in any of the countries in SA to apply for universities or college in SA. Studying in SA is just like studying in any countries of the world as a foreign student, fewer protocols, less bills but great fun. Want to study in South Africa? We’ll present you with steps to guide you just keep reading and don’t touch the dial (wink).

If you study in South Africa, it usually take three years of full-time study to complete a bachelor’s degree, and one or two years to complete a master’s degree. The academic year is split into two semesters, the first from early February to early June, and the second from mid-July to late November.

The QS World University Rankings 2016/17 ® features nine South African universities, with the highest international ranking position claimed by the University of Cape Town at joint 191st. The next highest ranked is the University of Witwatersrand  (commonly known as Wits) at joint 359th in the world, followed by university of Stellenbosch, ranked joint 395th.

Four more South African universities make it into the world’s top 700; these are the universities of Pretoria, Rhode and the University of Kwazulu, Natal.

Tuition fees at universities in South Africa vary depending on the university, study level and subject of study. You may also find fees are charged per course module, varying slightly depending on the specific classes you take. To give a rough idea of the price range, the University of Cape Town’s 2016 guidelines indicate minimum international fees of R75,000 (~US$5,200) for undergraduate and honors degrees, and R47,500 (~US$3,300) for master’s degrees.

Many South African universities offer their own scholarships and bursaries for international students at various levels of study, based on academic merit and/or financial need. Details will usually be listed on the university website. Incoming students may be automatically considered or may need to submit a separate application.

Living costs are relatively cheap, especially when compared to countries such as the US or the UK. On average, you’ll need around R96, 000 (~US$7,250) a year to cover accommodation, food, travel and other expenses.

Admission Guidelines & Requirement For Universities In South Africa
As is usual, admission requirements will vary depending on the university and the course you’re applying for. For specific details of the admission requirements for a particular course, visit the university website; if still unsure, contact the university directly to check your eligibility.

For a general idea of whether your qualifications are accepted by universities in South Africa, you can use the online assessment provided by Higher Education South Africa (HESA). If this shows that you do meet the minimum legal requirements for study in South Africa, you will then need to submit hard copies of the qualification documents to the Matriculation Board, in order to receive an official endorsement certificate (known as an “exemption”).

You will need to prove your knowledge of English or Afrikaans, depending on which language you choose to study in.

Student Visas for South Africa
If you are an international student intending to study in South Africa you must apply for a student visa. Universities in South Africa cannot register you as an international student until you have shown them a valid visa. You can apply through your nearest South African embassy, consulate or high commission. Visit the Department of Home Affairs website for more detailed information on visa costs, processing times, where to apply, what to submit, requirements for people in transit and information relating to your duration/purpose of stay, and photograph requirements.

Typically, student visas for South Africa take around six weeks to be processed. Once you have received conditional acceptance from the South African institution of your choice, you will then need to complete the temporary residence permit application form BI-1738 and submit it in person, along with the following documents, to a South African embassy or consulate in your home country:

Passport valid no less than 30 days after the end of your course. Your passport must have two consecutive, clear pages for entry/departure stamps.
Completed form BI-1738
Proof of payment for the visa application
Two color passport-sized photographs
Official letter of confirmation from your chosen South African university detailing the duration of your course, and undertaking to provide notice of registration/de-registration and course completion/extension within the allotted time period
Proof of necessary finances to cover tuition fees and living costs for the duration of your stay
Proof of medical or health insurance, and a letter confirming this will be renewed annually for the duration of your stay. Depending on where you’re travelling from, you may also need a yellow-fever vaccination certificate. South Africa is mostly malaria-free, but inoculations against hepatitis A and typhoid are recommended before travel.
Medical and radiological reports from within last six months
Details of accommodation arrangements in South Africa
If you’re under 18: written permission from both parents or from a sole custody parent including proof of sole custody; details of the person in South Africa who will act as your guardian, including a letter of confirmation from them
If you’re over 18: a police clearance certificate for every country you’ve resided in for more than 12 months since the age of 18
If you have children (minors) travelling with you or joining you in South Africa, you will need to provide proof of guardianship or custody or consent from the guardian.
Student visas for South Africa are valid for the duration of the course for which they are issued. As a student visa holder, you are allowed to work part-time for no more than 20 hours per week (and full-time during academic vacations). If you plan to work as part of your studies or to get work experience, you’ll need to apply for permission from the Department of Home Affairs. You’ll need to submit: an offer of practical training, consent from your educational institution in South Africa and proof that you are still a registered student.

Admission Application Guide, How to Apply

Pertaining to studying in Monash SA, there are several ways to apply for your course with Monash South Africa –

Online
Post
Email or fax.
The application process is the same whether you’re a South African citizen, a registered permanent resident of South Africa, or an international student. (International students come from anywhere outside South Africa.)

All applications are considered based on individual merit, so the only thing to do is to get started.

ONLINE APPLICATION

Choose your course code – Monash Online Admission system will guide you through the application process. You’ll be prompted to create an account or log in if you have one already. You can save your application at any time and return to it later – just be sure to complete it and supply any relevant documentation, like certified copies , before applications close. Once complete, your application is automatically submitted.

PAPER-BASED APPLICATION

If you’d like to lodge your application by posting, emailing or faxing it to us you’ll need to:

Check that you meet the academic requirements and English language requirements for the degree or programme you’d like to study.
Make sure you have certified copies of any relevant documentation (like your academic transcript, English scores and identity book/passport) requested.
Download and complete the application for admission form (pdf, 85Kb) or use the copy found in the back of the Monash South Africa Undergraduate Course Guide.
Apply for credit for previous study (advanced standing) by completing the form for Advanced Standing (pdf, 144Kb) – attach this to your application so it can be processed at the same time.
TRANSFER TO MONASH SOUTH AFRICA

If you started post-secondary studies at another institution and would like to transfer to Monash South Africa, you must meet the minimum admission requirements of the qualification that you want to study for. You may also apply for advanced standing (credit transfer) for the work you have already completed (limited as per qualification). Credit transfer is approved at the discretion of the School if the module content is determined to be commensurate with the unit offered at MSA. Credit transfer must be approved prior to commencing your studies at Monash South Africa.

You must provide all of the following documents relating to your previous course:

An academic transcript (original certified copy)
An explanation of what the results mean (usually found on the back of the transcript)
An extract from the handbook, detailing the course structure and credit points (or equivalent weighting of the course)
A unit syllabus including the assessment requirements for each unit you’re seeking credit for.
Proof of English proficiency, e.g. proof that study at home university was offered in English or formal English score
Download and complete the application for admission form (pdf, 85Kb) or use the copy found in the back of the Monash South Africa Undergraduate Course Guide.
Also complete the form for Advanced Standing (pdf, 144Kb) – attach this to your application as credits must be approved prior to commencement of studies.
Submitting Your Completed Application
Once your application is complete submit it, along with your supporting documentation, in one of three ways:

Scan and send it via email
Fax it, with a covering letter, to 00 27 11 950 4288
Post it to:
Admissions Office:

Monash South Africa

Private Bag X60

Roodepoort

1725

South Africa

Keep a copy of your application for your own records. If you are posting it, ask the post office for a receipt so that you have a record of when you sent it. Allow 2-3 weeks for a postal application to be received.
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How to Study In Ghana With Just 6 O’level Credits: Admission Starts From September/January for 2017/18 Academic Session.
using this platform, we would love to inform all candidates who are seeking for admissions into reputable and affordable universities in Ghana, that admission is now in progress!

You can now gain admission into any of Ghana’s Universities with as little as six (6) credit in WAEC / GCE/ NECO result:

List of Universities You Can Get Admitted into with six (6) credit in WAEC / GCE/ NECO
University of Ghana, Legon,
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology,
University of Cape coast,
Central university Ghana,
Wisconsin International University, Accra,
Radford University, Accra,
Knutsford University, East Legon, Accra,
All Nations University, Koforidua,
Reagent University,
Zenith University e.t.c
Please note that you can get admitted with affordable school fees and cheap Hostel accommodation. Also, Opportunities and ease of traveling abroad for summer job, Short-Summer courses through the university to the UK and USA.

Admission Requirements For Universities in Ghana:
Senior Secondary School Certificate:
We do seriously advise all applying applicant, that before applying, you must pass in core English, core Mathematics, core Science and three elective subjects, with an aggregate score of 24 or better in the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) or with an aggregate score of 36 or better in the West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations (WASSCE).


 

 

Programmes The Schools are Offering:
· Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Information Technology
· Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Computer Science
· Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Management Studies;
· Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Agribusiness Management;
· Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Banking and Finance;
· Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Business Administration with options in Marketing, Human Resource Management and Accounting
· Bachelor of Science in Nursing
· Bachelor of Science Architecture
· Bachelor of Science in Physician Assistantship
· Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy
· Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering
. Bachelor of Science in Medical laboratory Science
. Bachelor of Science in Applied Sciences
. B.Eng Oil and gas Engineering
. B.Eng Computer Engineering
. B.Eng Software Engineering
. B.Eng Software Technology Engineering
. B.Eng Electronic & Electrical Engineering
. B.A Law
. B.A Mass Communication
. B.A Fashion Design

Please note that having a higher placement can be granted to candidates with Bachelors of science degree, Transferred from other recognised institutions of higher education.
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Before your application is confirmed and you are looking for scholarship or to commence studying in Abroad, Please this is important.

Don’t quit your job or stop your business to travel abroad for studies!

Don’t use all your money or sell your business to prepare for your study abroad. It’s the worst idea and most times, it backfires.

This article is prepared for all Nigerians who are preparing to travel abroad to study, this article is solely created for you:

1. We don’t appreciates what we have here as a country, though i won’t blame the public a single bit. There are several courses you can get to understand here than traveling out to study them.

If you are planning to go study courses like:

Accounting,
Business Administration,
Marketing, etc,

Don’t be that quick to travel abroad, except you’re on a scholarship, please nothing should stop you.

But if you’re doing that out of your pocket Money, do not be that quick to travel abroad to study because those courses are well-tutored here.

The truth is that even if you go abroad to study the above mentioned courses and spend all those huge monies, you still have the same probability of securing a job like other applicants/graduates who studied here in Nigeria.




2. One main reason you should go studying Abroad is if Nigerian Universities are not that equipped to handle your course/programme, and the truth is that, no matter we’re called the Giant of Africa, there are some areas where we are ants.

However, if your choice of course is Engineering, your best bet is foreign universities.

Because they do have a better option and equipments, almost all Nigerian universities don’t have the necessary facilities to teach her students in this field.

But before going to study abroad, you should choose the country which are well known and equipped. Here’s a classical example.

if you want to study Mechanical Engineering, we’ll advice you to checkout the following countries:
United States of America (MIT, etc),
India,
Japan,
United Kingdoms.


 

 

3. While for students whose aim is to study Chemical Engineering abroad and any courses which are related, then these are the very best countries we’ll advice you to consider:

Russia,
United States of America.

4. What about candidates who wishes to study Medicine or other related courses, here are the top notched countries:
Israel – your best choice, followed by:
United States,
India,
Canada.

5. While one of the very best countries for candidates who want to gain more indepth knowledge about computer science, then these countries are your best shots:

United States,
India.

BUT if want to know more about css coding, coding games, coding programmes and Applications/bots, then you should probably head to India, it’s among the best and yes, it’s advisable.

6. What about students who want to gain more knowledge about:

English?
Law?
Literature or other related courses,

Then you should probably head to the United Kingdom and United States, they’re the oldest English speaking countries and yes, they are also the very best.

7. What is you reason for studying abroad? To make ends met and secure a better paying job, right?

Well, it is possible, but you need to know how the economy works and which courses have the most sought after jobs in Nigeria and abroad.

To stand on a higher ground in securing your dream job after graduating from a foreign university, then please be informed that you will stand a better chance if you are an engineering student, probably from any of these courses:

Mechanical engineering,
Electrical engineering,

If you study the above courses from countries like United States, India, etc then you stand a better chance that your Nigeria contemporaries ).

And if you wants to study Administrative courses, then don’t even think of studying outside the shores of Nigeria.

Just save up your money and register at the Lagos Business School, which is also known as PAN-AFRICAN University in Lagos Nigeria.

Studying in the Lagos Business School is costly, and if you want, you can get an MBA from the school too. This costs around 3.5 – 4 million Naira.

With a certificate from the Lagos Business School, you stand a better chances of securing a job related to your career in Nigeria.
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How About Your School? / NABTEB Zonal Offices in Nigeria
« Last post by JEFFREY96 on Today at 03:06:29 am »
you might want to check this page, to see the list of NABTEB zonal offices in Nigeria.

This is where you will know the office that is close to you.

So if you want to know NABTEB office in your state below is the complete office address and telephone number.

NABTEB ZONAL OFFICES   STATES SERVED BY THE ZONE   TELEPHONE

NABTEB Zonal Office, Ministry of Works, Behind Iluobe Petrol Station, Benin/Agbor Road, B/City, Edo State   Edo, Delta, Ondo, Ekiti and Bayelsa   052 – 259320
NABTEB Zonal Office, Ahmadu Bello Way , Ministry of Education Headquarters, ANNEX II. Ilorin (Kwara State).   Kwara, Kogi and Niger   031-224879
NABTEB Zonal Office, Rumfa College Complex, Along Bayero University Road , Kano , Kano State . P.M.B. 3552   Kano, Jigawa, Katsina and Kaduna   064 – 668892
NABTEB Zonal Office, Old Governor’s Office Block C & D Gbongon/Ibadan Road Osogbo, Osun State   Osun, Oyo, Lagos and Ogun   035-243814
NABTEB Zonal Office, State Ministry of Education (Resource Centre) Shell, Camp, Opposite Alvan Ikoku College of Education Owerri, Imo State . P.M.B. 1022   Imo, and Rivers   083-233869
NABTEB Zonal Office, Block 10, Five Star, Giginya Secretariat, P.M.B. 2431, Sokoto, Sokoto State .   Sokoto, Kebbi and Zamfara   060-231435
NABTEB Zonal Office, Ministry of Education, ‘ Headquarters’Yola, Adamawa State . P.M.B. 2048, Yola   Adamawa, Taraba, and Gombe   075 – 626788
NABTEB Zonal Office, 20, Ekpeyoung Street , Off. Barracks Road, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State.   Akwa-Ibom and Cross River   085-200065
NABTEB Zonal Office, Area Education Office, Water Board Headquarters Opposite Akper-Aku Stadium, P.M.B. 102079 Makurdi, Benue State   Benue, Plateau, Abuj a and Nasarawa   044-533230
NABTEB Zonal Office, Ministry of Education, P.M.B. 1046, Maiduguri, Bomo State   Bomo, Bauchi & Yobe   076-231226
NABTEB Zonal Office, INEC Road, Awka, Anambra State   Enugu, Anambra   C/o JAMB, 048-554089
NABTEB Zonal Office, IBEKE School Road, Umuahia, Abia State   Abia & Eboyin   
NABTEB Abuj a Liaison Office, Plot 650 Aminu Kano Crescent, Wuse II, Abuia      09-5239676, 5237772
NABTEB Zonal Office, Lagos, Federal Secretariat, Phase II, Ikoyi, Lagos.
The information above was resourced from nabtebnigeria.org.
 
Feel free to share your thought.

That is all regarding NABTEB Zonal Offices in Nigeria, if you have any question or contribution, please leave it in the comment section.
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Seems to be working fine... thanks
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These contents will expose you on every fact concerning kidney disease, health problem, symptoms and kidney treatment and also how you can prevent any other infectious diseases.

Recall that Kidneys are two bean – shaped organs found on the left and right side of the body in vertebrates. They filter the blood in order to make urine, to release and retain water, and to remove water and nitrogen (the excretory system).
Kidney disease – on this note, there are other types of kidney which are


 
Renal Artery
Renal Vein
Renal Plexus
Kidney Disease | Health Problem, Symptoms & Signs – Kidney Treatment

Kidney Disease – Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans, it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt self-manage when facing physical, mental, psychological and social changes.

Notice that the World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Diseases or infirmity (infections) that causes Health problems to Human are listed here –

MALARIA, TYPHOID, EXTERNAL PILES, LOSS OF MEMORY, POOR ERECTION, QUICK EJACULATION, LOW SPERM COUNT, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, DIABETES, FIBROID, CHICKEN AND SMALL POX, GONORRHEA, SYPHILIS, ARTHRITIS, ASTHMA, BLEEDING DURING PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL PAIN AFTER DELIVERY, INSOMNIA, TUBERCULOSIS, WHITLOW, CATARRH, MOUTH ODOUR (BAD BREATHE), CHRONIC COUGH, BED WETTING, CHILD CONVULSION, DIARRHEA, WORM INFECTION.

Kidney Symptoms and Signs – Kidney Functions

Kidney Symptoms

Weakness

Shortness of breathe

Lethargy

Swelling

Confusion

Kidney Functions


 
Extraction of waste

Reabsorbtion of vital nutrients

Acid-Base Homeostasis

Osmolarity regulation

Blood pressure regulation

Hormone secretion

Kidney Treatment

Diagnosis

Laboratory studies

Imaging

Biopsy
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Health and Welfare / How to Start Ostrich Farming in Nigeria
« Last post by JEFFREY96 on Yesterday at 02:56:49 pm »
How to Start Ostrich Farming in Nigeria
 
Ostrich Farming in Nigeria | OSTRICH? How does it sound? Impossible right? Ostrich farming, although not really popular is very very lucrative, saves energy and resources more than cattle rearing. Eat low compared to cattle with their large feeding capacity and weight more kg compared to cattle and live longer if not killed prematurely

How to Start Ostrich Farming in Nigeria

The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either one or two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family. In 2014, the Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes) was recognized as a distinct species. It can live longer than a cow at a rate of 30 to 40 years.
 
BENEFITS OF OSTRICH FARMING:

I’m sure you didn’t know this, though ostrich looks scary with its long neck and frightening body, the horrible sound it makes through its stomach yea yea but rearing it could actually be fun with loads of great benefits;

EGG: Ostrich produce eggs that hatch into young troublesome ostrich that scare little children. The eggs could be sold to potential buyers or allowed to hatch.

SKIN: The ostrich’s skin is far more versatile than the cattle skin. In the 18th century; ostriches were nearly brought to extinction by hunting because their feathers were very fashionable in women’s clothing. But by the mid-19th century, people started farming ostriches. This allowed farmers to simply pluck the feathers from their domesticated birds without having to kill them.

FAT: Ostrich fat is very nutritious for the body, it has low cholesterol and low fat, provides rich fats and oil and is a good treatment for the skin.

GUIDES FOR AN EFFECTIVE OSTRICH FARMING

Determine which ostrich products to sell in order to produce revenue from the farm. Ostrich meat and ostrich hide are two common sources of revenue. The eggs and feathers of ostriches can also be sold and do not require the slaughter of the bird.
Locate an area of land that can be used for the ostrich farm. Ostriches require between one and three acres of land in order to run and remain healthy. Build a simple shelter to protect the birds from harsh weather, and construct a fence to prevent the ostriches from escaping.

Provide a sufficient supply of food and water for the ostrich farm. Large birds can drink several gallons of water each day. Ensure that the water is kept fresh. Purchase feed that is specially formulated for ostrich nutrition. Alternately, plant crops and grasses for the ostriches to eat.

Choose a type of ostrich to raise. Red neck, blue neck and African black ostriches are the three general types of birds. Red neck and blue neck ostriches are often large and aggressive, while African black birds are smaller and easier to manage. The African black ostrich is often recommended for first-time farm operators.

Purchase ostriches for the farm. Select from unhatched eggs, young chicks or adult ostriches. Unhatched eggs and young chicks are relatively inexpensive but require a significant amount of time and expertise to rear properly. Adult ostriches can begin producing new eggs quickly yet are more expensive to purchase initially.
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On these special articles, we will reveal to you on what you need to know on your Health and the kind of Fruits, Vegetable, Foods, and Herbs that will suit your Body System for a proper Nutritional value.

Always observe that orange is a fruit of the Citrus Species which is also called Sweet Orange
Orange Fruits – On this note, there are other Citrus group known as Oranges which are:

Bergamot Orange                 

Trifoliate Orange

Mandarin Orange

Bitter Orange

Orange Fruits | Benefits on Health & Side Effects – Food for Human

Orange Fruits – Oranges may boost your Immune system and improve your skin; they also have natural sources of Vitamins and Minerals which are essential for the proper functioning of the body.


Benefits of Oranges in Health

Boost Immune System

Lowers Cholesterol Level

Increases Heart Flow

Aids in Digestion and Weight Loss

Reduces Risks of Diabetes

Improves Night Vision

Reduces Risks of Cancer

Orange Fruits – Food for Human

In compilation, fruits are gotten from plants. They are natural foods for humans and by direct consumptions, a lot of natural vitamins and minerals can be obtained. For it is advised by the medical experts and practitioners that an average man who wants to live long should eats a lots of fruits plants and vegetables.
The Fruits may include:

Apple, Aprica, Banana, Blackberry, Blueberry, Cherry, Cranberry, Fig, Guava, Grapes, Indian Gooseberry, Kiwi, Mango, Orange, Peach, Papaya, Pineapple, Plum, Pomegranate, Pear, Raspberry, Strawberry, Watermelon Etc.


If you want us to update you on Orange Fruits, you can like our facebook pages and share with us your opinion using the comment box, thanks.
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Business Guides / Fadama Farming in Nigeria: Guidelines and Benefit
« Last post by JEFFREY96 on Yesterday at 02:41:40 pm »
Fadama Farming in Nigeria | The term Fadama is a Hausa name for irrigable land usually low –laying plains underlined by shallow aquifers found along major river systems. Kudi et al (2008). In addition to providing a source of water for livestock during dry seasons, Fadama also support large and diverse resident or transient wildlife including herbivores, carnivores and migratory birds NAFDO (2007). According to Kudi et al. (2002), the word “fadama” (in Hausa language) means a low lying area which is susceptible to periodic (seasonal) flooding.
 
Fadama farming therefore implies cultivation or growing of crop under irrigation or in the dry season because flood plains are inaccessible during the normal season. According to Ike (2012) Fadama is a tripartite funded intervention by World Bank in 1996, the Federal Government of Nigeria and participating states with objectives targeted towards poverty reduction and thus designed to improve the capacities of beneficiary group. Fadama project is mainly aim at sustaining increase in the income of users of rural land and water resources. The need for all year round improved food production in Nigeria is inevitable with the projected annual population growth rate of 5.5% and food production at annual growth rate of 3.2% World Bank (1996).

The first National Fadama Development (NFDP) was designed in the early 1990s to promote simple low – cost improves irrigation technology under the Word Bank Financing. Ondo/Ekiti states has a total irrigable area of 146,775ha area under Fadama cultivation of maize production between 1997 and 2000 in Ondo State, while 25.5 hectares were used for rice, 113.3 hectares for okro, 1897 hectares for pepper, 288.3 hectares for tomatoes and 317.0 hectares use for amaranthus.

With the success of the completed Fadama projects I, II and III, the Nigerian government wanted to expand the success to the Agricultural Transformation Agenda, which led to the additional financing. The project, which started in 2015, focused on support to value chains of cassava, rice, sorghum and horticulture in six states; Kogi, Niger, Kano, Lagos, Anambra and Enugu. The six states will serve as hubs of Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZs), while surrounding states will serve as catchment areas to feed the processing zones. Today, the Fadama development project has dominated most states in Nigeria as other states which to partake in the development.

To participate in the program, farmers are expected to join cluster groups through Fadama Offices in the participating states. The project is expected to reach about 317,000 direct beneficiary households and 1.4 million indirect beneficiary households.

Impacts of FADAMA Farming on Farmers

Socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents showed that the mean age of the respondents was 45.35 years and only 12.3% of them were above 60 years of age. This implies that most of the respondents are still in their productive years and therefore are relevant to the study. Most of the respondents (92.3%) and (93.1%) Were male and married respectively.

Religion of the respondents showed that 71.5% practice Christianity religion while 20.0% practice Islamic religion. This shows that Fadama farming is not in conflict with any of the religions in Nigeria. Most of the respondents (60.0%) have no formal educational certificate and only 9.2% of them have post primary educational certificate. The implication of this is that most of respondents cannot have access to agricultural information through print media and in official language. Most of the respondents have their household size between 5 and 8 persons.

This also indicates that most of their farm produce will be consumed by family members as food and family members can also serve as farm labourers. Most of the respondents practice farming on full-time basis. Majority of the Apata and Saliu; AJEA, 10(4): 1-7, 2016;  respondents (83.2%) take trading as other income generating activity. This reveals that since respondents have other sources of income they may not invest all their resources such as time and money in agricultural activities. They may have to share these among activities. Most of the respondents have experience above 10years.
 
This means that farming is not new to them and they must have gotten some indigenous knowledge about farming activities. Only 22.3% and 7.7% of the respondents got agricultural information through mass media and extension agents respectively. This implies that both mass media and extension agents are performing below their expectations in the area of agricultural information dissemination and this can hamper agricultural and rural development in the country.

Annual Income of the Respondents

It is noted that 3.8% of fadama respondents and 36.2% non-fadama respondents have less than 200,000.00 naira from their farming activities annually. On the other hand, 15.4% fadama respondents and 2.3% non-fadama respondents make between 401,000.00 and 600.000.00 naira annually. It is also observed that 1.5% fadama respondents make above 1,000,000.00 naira annually while no non-fadama respondents make such. It therefore shows that fadama respondents have higher annual income than their non-fadama respondents counterpart.

Benefits and Constraints of Fadama is revealed that access to loan and agricultural information were identified as additional benefits of participation in fadama project by 50.0% and 33.1% of the respondents respectively. This may be the reason why participants have higher productivity than non-participants. Agricultural information and agricultural loan are the most important prerequisites for higher agricultural productivity.

On the other hand, low awareness (43.1%) and inadequate funding (43.8%) are identified as major constraints to participation in fadama project. This implies that more awareness of the project should be created among farmers especially where fadama project has not been taken place and all stake holders should be faithful to their financial contribution towards the project.

Farmers from all over the states in the country have expressed gratitude to the sponsors of the Fadama for blessing their lives, some say ‘goodness has visited them.’ indeed goodness has.
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